Three dimensional printing of transparent fused silica glass

Three-dimensional printing allows extremely small and complex structures to be made even in small series. A method developed at the KIT for the first time allows also glass to be used for this technique. As a consequence of the properties of glass, such as transparency, thermal stability and resistance to acids, the use of this material in 3D-printing opens up manifold new applications in production and research, such as optics, data transmission, and biotechnology.

It was used as far back as in ancient Egypt and ancient Rome and has found a place now also in manufacturing technology of the 21st century.

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An interdisciplinary team at the KIT led by mechanical engineer Dr. Bastian E. Rapp developed a process using glass for additive manufacturing techniques. The scientists mix nanoparticles of high-purity quartz glass and a small quantity of liquid polymer and allow this mixture to be cured by light at specific points — by means of stereolithography.

The material, which has remained liquid, is washed out in a solvent bath, leaving only the desired cured structure. The polymer still mixed in this glass structure is subsequently removed by heating. He conducts research at the KIT Institute of Microstructure Technology and heads a working group of chemists, electrical engineers, and biologists.

The variety of 3D-printing techniques available so far have been used on polymers or metals, but never on glass.

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Where glass was processed into structures, for instance by melting and application by means of a nozzle, the surface turned out to be very rough, the material was porous and contained voids. The glass structures made by the KIT scientists show resolutions in the range of a few micrometers — one micrometer corresponding to one thousandth of a millimeter.

However, the structures may have dimensions in the range of a few centimeters, emphasizes Rapp. For biological and medical technologies, very small analytical systems could be made out of miniaturized glass tubes.

In addition, 3D-shaped microstructures of glass could be employed in a variety of optical areas, from eyeglasses meeting special requirements to lenses in laptop cameras. The work performed by the research group headed by Rapp has been funded by the BMBF since for a total of four years to the tune of approx. It is the objective to make significant contributions to the global challenges in the fields of energy, mobility, and information.

For this, about 9, employees cooperate in a broad range of disciplines in natural sciences, engineering sciences, economics, and the humanities and social sciences. KIT prepares its 24, students for responsible tasks in society, industry, and science by offering research-based study programs. Innovation efforts at KIT build a bridge between important scientific findings and their application for the benefit of society, economic prosperity, and the preservation of our natural basis of life.

Nature: 3D-Printing of Glass Now Possible

KIT is one of the German universities of excellence. Press Releases PI Complicated high-precision structures made of glass can be manufactured in a 3D-printing process developed at the KIT. Photos: KIT. The press release is available as a PDF file.Glass is one of the most important high-performance materials used for scientific research, in industry and in society, mainly owing to its unmatched optical transparency, outstanding mechanical, chemical and thermal resistance as well as its thermal and electrical insulating properties.

However, glasses and especially high-purity glasses such as fused silica glass are notoriously difficult to shape, requiring high-temperature melting and casting processes for macroscopic objects or hazardous chemicals for microscopic features.

3-D printing glass objects

These drawbacks have made glasses inaccessible to modern manufacturing technologies such as three-dimensional printing 3D printing. Using a casting nanocomposite, here we create transparent fused silica glass components using stereolithography 3D printers at resolutions of a few tens of micrometres. The process uses a photocurable silica nanocomposite that is 3D printed and converted to high-quality fused silica glass via heat treatment.

The printed fused silica glass is non-porous, with the optical transparency of commercial fused silica glass, and has a smooth surface with a roughness of a few nanometres. By doping with metal salts, coloured glasses can be created. This work widens the choice of materials for 3D printing, enabling the creation of arbitrary macro- and microstructures in fused silica glass for many applications in both industry and academia.

Enable full ADS. Citations References 3. Similar Papers. Volume Content. Export Citation. Abstract Glass is one of the most important high-performance materials used for scientific research, in industry and in society, mainly owing to its unmatched optical transparency, outstanding mechanical, chemical and thermal resistance as well as its thermal and electrical insulating properties.Three-dimensional printing allows extremely small and complex structures to be made even in small series.

A method developed at the KIT for the first time allows also glass to be used for this technique. As a consequence of the properties of glass, such as transparency, thermal stability and resistance to acids, the use of this material in 3D-printing opens up manifold new applications in production and research, such as optics, data transmission, and biotechnology.

It was used as far back as in ancient Egypt and ancient Rome and has found a place now also in manufacturing technology of the 21st century.

three dimensional printing of transparent fused silica glass

An interdisciplinary team at the KIT led by mechanical engineer Dr. Bastian E. Rapp developed a process using glass for additive manufacturing techniques. The scientists mix nanoparticles of high-purity quartz glass and a small quantity of liquid polymer and allow this mixture to be cured by light at specific points — by means of stereolithography.

The material, which has remained liquid, is washed out in a solvent bath, leaving only the desired cured structure.

Breaking the Wall of 3D Glass Printing

The polymer still mixed in this glass structure is subsequently removed by heating. He conducts research at the KIT Institute of Microstructure Technology and heads a working group of chemists, electrical engineers, and biologists. The variety of 3D-printing techniques available so far have been used on polymers or metals, but never on glass.

Where glass was processed into structures, for instance by melting and application by means of a nozzle, the surface turned out to be very rough, the material was porous and contained voids. The glass structures made by the KIT scientists show resolutions in the range of a few micrometers — one micrometer corresponding to one thousandth of a millimeter.

However, the structures may have dimensions in the range of a few centimeters, emphasizes Rapp. For biological and medical technologies, very small analytical systems could be made out of miniaturized glass tubes.

In addition, 3D-shaped microstructures of glass could be employed in a variety of optical areas, from eyeglasses meeting special requirements to lenses in laptop cameras. The work performed by the research group headed by Rapp has been funded by the BMBF since for a total of four years to the tune of approx.

Materials provided by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Science News. Three-dimensional printing of transparent fused silica glass. Nature; : DOI: Additive manufacturing AMwhich is also known as three-dimensional 3D printing, uses computer-aided design to build objects layer by layer.

We compare these 3D printing methods and analyze their benefits and problems for the manufacturing of functional glass objects.

three dimensional printing of transparent fused silica glass

In addition, we discuss the technological principles of 3D glass printing and applications of 3D printed glass objects. This review is finalized by a summary of the current achievements and perspectives for the future development of the 3D glass printing technique. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Wong K V, Hernandez A. A review of additive manufacturing. Google Scholar.

Additive manufacturing methods and modelling approaches: a critical review. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology,83 1—4 : — Balling P, Schou J. Femtosecond-laser ablation dynamics of dielectrics: basics and applications for thin films.

Reports on Progress in Physics,76 3 : Recent advances in 3D printing of biomaterials. Journal of Biological Engineering,9 1 : 4. Berman B. Business Horizons,55 2 : — Bone tissue engineering using 3D printing.

Materials Today,16 12 : — Evaluation of 3D printing and its potential impact on biotechnology and the chemical sciences.

three dimensional printing of transparent fused silica glass

Analytical Chemistry,86 7 : — Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies. Nature Materials,7 1 : 31— Composites, Part B, Engineering,— Review of selective laser melting: materials and applications. Applied Physics Reviews,2 4 : Silica glass: a material for photonics.

Journal of Applied Physics,88 3 : —Structuring of glass is challenging and usually requires high temperatures to shape a glass melt or aggressive chemicals for etching of microstructures. Glassomer is a silica nanocomposite which comes as a liquid or a solid. As a liquid Glassomer e. Glassomer L50 can be structured by room temperature replication or stereolithography 3D printing.

As a solid Glassomer can be structured using classical subtractive structuring technologies like drilling, milling, lathing or simply carving with a knife. It can further be structured using thermal polymer molding technologies like nanoimprinting, thermoforming or high-throughput roll-to-roll replication.

A final heat treatment turns the polymeric nanocomposites into high quality fused silica glass. The Glassomer Technology: Glassomer pre-glass materials are shaped by molding.

The whitish brown part is converted to glass. The sintered Glassomer parts are chemically and physically indistinguishable from commercial fused silica glass.

They show the same high optical transparancy in the UV, visible and infrared region combined with the high thermal and chemical stabililty as well as the same mechanical strength and hardness of commercial fused silica glass. Glassomer allows for the first time to structure high quality fused silica glass using polymer processing technologies with resolutions of a few micrometers and surface roughnesses of a few nanometers fully compatible with the demands of optics and photonics.

Expansion: 0. Kotz, et al.

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Complex Shapes. High Precision. Glass shaping made easy. High Quality Fused Silica Glass.Glass is one of the most important high-performance materials used for scientific research, in industry and in society, mainly owing to its unmatched optical transparency, outstanding mechanical, chemical and thermal resistance as well as its thermal and electrical insulating properties.

However, glasses and especially high-purity glasses such as fused silica glass are notoriously difficult to shape, requiring high-temperature melting and casting processes for macroscopic objects or hazardous chemicals for microscopic features.

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These drawbacks have made glasses inaccessible to modern manufacturing technologies such as three-dimensional printing 3D printing. Using a casting nanocomposite, here we create transparent fused silica glass components using stereolithography 3D printers at resolutions of a few tens of micrometres.

The process uses a photocurable silica nanocomposite that is 3D printed and converted to high-quality fused silica glass via heat treatment.

The printed fused silica glass is non-porous, with the optical transparency of commercial fused silica glass, and has a smooth surface with a roughness of a few nanometres. By doping with metal salts, coloured glasses can be created. This work widens the choice of materials for 3D printing, enabling the creation of arbitrary macro- and microstructures in fused silica glass for many applications in both industry and academia.

A practical guide to the fluid mechanics, including the mathematical and physical fundamentals, as well as analytical and numerical techniques required in academic and industrial microfluidic systems design. This practical, step-by-step approach to nano- and microfluidics provides readers with a wealth of analytical and practical techniques, and techniques ready to be put into practice in both research and industrial settings. Rapp fully engages with the multidisciplinary nature of the subject.

This book offers a widespread overview of the fluid mechanics of microfluidics and practical guidance on techniques, pitfalls and troubleshooting in the field. Derives the fundamental equations in detail Introduces and experiments with all relevant analytical and numerical techniques for assessing microfluidic systems.

Provides techniques and, experiments ready to be put to use in an academic, or industry setting including a fully-functional custom-written three-dimensional numerical solver.

three dimensional printing of transparent fused silica glass

A collection of source code, Maple and Microsoft Excel worksheets, and image files is provided on a companion website. Back to top.Suche im KITopen-Katalog. Repository KITopen. Glass is one of the most important high-performance materials used for scientific research, in industry and in society, mainly owing to its unmatched optical transparency, outstanding mechanical, chemical and thermal resistance as well as its thermal and electrical insulating properties1, 2, 3.

However, glasses and especially high-purity glasses such as fused silica glass are notoriously difficult to shape, requiring high-temperature melting and casting processes for macroscopic objects or hazardous chemicals for microscopic features3, 4.

These drawbacks have made glasses inaccessible to modern manufacturing technologies such as three-dimensional printing 3D printing. Using a casting nanocomposite5, here we create transparent fused silica glass components using stereolithography 3D printers at resolutions of a few tens of micrometres.

The process uses a photocurable silica nanocomposite that is 3D printed and converted to high-quality fused silica glass via heat treatment.

The printed fused silica glass is non-porous, with the optical transparency of commercial fused silica glass, and has a smooth surface with a roughness of a few nanometres. This work widens the choice of materials for 3D printing, enabling the creation of arbitrary macro- and microstructures in fused silica glass for many applications in both industry and academia. Externe Links. Scopus Zitationen: Web of Science Zitationen: Exportieren als Seitenaufrufe: seit KITopen Landing Page.

Scopus Web of Science.