How to write reference citation

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This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association6 th ed. It will remain online untilbut will not be updated.

The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here. Reference citations in text are covered on pages of the Publication Manual.

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What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay. When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, Jones,and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.

APA Citation & Style Guide

All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media. If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference preceded by "p. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. According to Jones"Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p.

Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.Last Updated: January 21, References. To create this article, volunteer authors worked to edit and improve it over time.

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how to write reference citation

Learn more In order to indicate where specific information in an essay or report came from, a writer must immediately follow the borrowed information with an in-text citation.

In-text citations are a vital part of any research paper, regardless of the style manual used. Please help us continue to provide you with our trusted how-to guides and videos for free by whitelisting wikiHow on your ad blocker. Log in Facebook. No account yet? Create an account.

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Edit this Article. We use cookies to make wikiHow great. By using our site, you agree to our cookie policy. Cookie Settings. Learn why people trust wikiHow. Download Article Explore this Article methods. Related Articles. Method 1 of Introduce the author in the sentence. Whenever it is available, you must include the last name of the author or authors responsible for the work.Last Updated: June 1, References. This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness.

There are 18 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewedtimes. Learn more When writing a paper for a research project, you may need to cite a research paper you used as a reference. The basic information included in your citation will be the same across all styles.

To cite a paper APA style, start with the author's last name and first initial, and the year of publication. Then, list the title of the paper, where you found it, and the date that you accessed it.

In a paper, use a parenthetical reference with the last name of the author and the publication year. For an MLA citation, list the author's last name and then first name and the title of the paper in quotations. Include where you accessed the paper and the date you retrieved it. In your paper, use a parenthetical reference with the author's last name and the page number. Keep reading for tips on Chicago and AMA citations and exceptions to the citation rules!

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how to write reference citation

We use cookies to make wikiHow great. By using our site, you agree to our cookie policy. Cookie Settings. Learn why people trust wikiHow. Download Article Explore this Article methods. Citation Help.

Tips and Warnings. Related Articles. Article Summary. Method 1 of Start with the author's last name and first initial. In APA style, the author's name is inverted, meaning you list the last name first. Place a comma after the last name, then the first initial. Provide the year the paper was published.

If the paper was published in an academic journal, include the year in parentheses after the authors' names. If the paper was unpublished, such as a print-only thesis or dissertation, use the year the paper was written.

List the title of the research paper. Use sentence capitalization to write out the full title of the research paper, capitalizing the first word and any proper names.Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.

Etiam at porttitor massa. In non cursus lectus. Fusce eget risus vitae tellus venenatis vestibulum a sed tellus. URLs uniform resource locators provide the location for a source on the Internet.

However, URLs can often change, which causes problems for references because we're trying to send our readers to a specific location. That location problem is where DOIs come in. DOI stands for digital object identifier. DOIs provide static, permanent online locations for sources.

They're also noticeably shorter than most URLs, which is handy! If you can't find the DOI on either the article or the database record page, you can look it up on CrossRef. Scroll down to the bottom and type in the first author's last name and the title of the article. Publication Year. Title of book: Subtitle of book. For example: Publishers, Co. However, keep the words Books and Press. Publication Date. Title of article: Subtitle of article. Title of Periodical, vol isspage-range.

Title of source [Description of format, if it's not just a plain webpage]. Note: APA citation is about the sourcenot the location of the source.

While these are examples of some specific online sources, most online sources will actually fall under other categories: articles, eBooks, reports, etc.

Citation for Beginners

Be sure to look up the guidelines for those source types. Note that a webpage is a small part of a larger website. Just as chapter and article titles aren't in italics, webpage titles aren't in italics, either. If you refer to a website in general, but not a specific part of that website, APA states that you can simply use an in-text citation with the website's name and URL. Here's an example:. Year of release.

Title of film [Description of format]. Country of origin: Studio or Distributor. Title of media [Description of format]. Copyright Year. On Title of album [Description of format]. Date of recording if different from song copyright date. Title of report: Subtitle of report Report No. If the material in the course pack was previously published a chapter from a book, an article from a journalcite the source as you would its original version.

See the tabs for books and articles. If the material in the course pack was not previously published, cite the source as a compilation.

PowerPoint files or other materials shared live in a class are just like live lectures—they can't be retrieved by anyone after the fact. Because of that, they should be cited as personal communications.Last Updated: November 10, References Approved.

This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. There are 14 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

How to Cite Sources

This article has been viewed 1, times. Learn more When you paraphrase or quote information from another source in a research paper, essay, or other written work, cite the original source of the information. Otherwise, your readers believe you are trying to pass this information off as your original thought. Proper citation adds credibility to your work and provides evidence to support any arguments you make. Your citations also give your readers the opportunity to further explore the topic of your work on their own.

Tip: Save time and reduce the risk of error by making a photo or screenshot of the title page or top of the article that clearly shows the author and title. Tip: Double-check your online sources the day before you turn your paper in.

That way if anything has moved or changed, you can make sure you have the most up-to-date information. Use that date as your date of access in your citations.

Note: For some citation styles that use footnotes or endnotes, the superscript number appears immediately after the paraphrased or quoted material, rather than at the end of the sentence. Consult the guide for the citation style you're using to make sure.

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Example: Leaving the ground in sod increases the organic matter of the soil by 15 percent in 10 years Allison, Example: Leaving the ground in sod increases the organic matter of the soil by 15 percent in 10 years.

Example: Leaving the ground in sod increases the organic matter of the soil by 15 percent in 10 years Alison Example: Clark, Stuart. Accessed 2 October Support wikiHow by unlocking this staff-researched answer.

how to write reference citation

If you're using MLA, for example, write the author's name and the page number being cited. To learn more about citing books, newspapers, and online magazines, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No. Please help us continue to provide you with our trusted how-to guides and videos for free by whitelisting wikiHow on your ad blocker. Log in Facebook. No account yet? Create an account.Here is a complete list for how to cite sources.

The Modern Language Association created the MLA Style, currently in its 8th edition, to provide researchers with guidelines for writing and documenting scholarly borrowings. Most often used in the humanities, MLA style or MLA format has been adopted and used by numerous other disciplines, in multiple parts of the world.

MLA provides standard rules to follow so that most research papers are formatted in a similar manner. This makes it easier for readers to comprehend the information.

The MLA in-text citation guidelines, MLA works cited standards, and MLA annotated bibliography instructions provide scholars with the information they need to properly cite sources in their research papers, articles, and assignments. The American Psychological Association created the APA citation style in as a way to help psychologists, anthropologists, and even business managers establish one common way to cite sources and present content.

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APA is used when citing sources for academic articles such as journals, and is intended to help readers better comprehend content, and to avoid language bias wherever possible. The APA style or APA format is now in its 7th edition, and provides citation style guides for virtually any type of resource. The Turabian and Chicago citation styles are almost identical, but the Turabian style is geared towards student published papers such as theses and dissertations, while the Chicago style provides guidelines for all types of publications.

Citations have been helping researches document their sources for hundreds of years, and are a great way to learn more about a particular subject area.

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Ever wonder what sets all the different styles apart, or how they came to be in the first place? Read on for some interesting facts about citations! You may be familiar with MLA and APA citation styles, but there are actually thousands of citation styles used for all different academic disciplines all across the world.

Deciding which one to use can be difficult, so be sure to ask you instructor which one you should be using for your next paper. While a majority of citation styles are named for the specific organizations that publish them i. The most well-known example of this is perhaps Turabian style, named for Kate L. Turabian, an American educator and writer. She developed this style as a condensed version of the Chicago Manual of Style in order to present a more concise set of rules to students.

How specific can citation styles get? The answer is very. It publishes original research articles, reviews and special reports on all aspects of flavor and fragrance. The US Census Bureau estimates that approximately Meanwhile, about 43 million citations were made on EasyBib from January to March of this year. The concept of citations always stays the same.

It is a means of preventing plagiarism and demonstrating where you relied on outside sources. The specific style rules, however, can and do change regularly. For example, so far in alone, 46 new citation styles have been introducedand updates have been made to exiting styles.

At EasyBib, we are always on the lookout for ways to improve our styles and opportunities to add new ones to our list. Not only does this make sure that the sources they use receive proper credit for their work, it ensures that the student receives deserved recognition for their unique contributions to the topic. Having many citations from a wide variety of sources related to their idea means that the student is working on a well-researched and respected subject.

Citing sources that back up their claim creates room for fact-checking and further research. And, if they can cite a few sources that have the converse opinion or idea, and then demonstrate to the reader why they believe that that viewpoint is wrong by again citing credible sources, the student is well on their way to winning over the reader and cementing their point of view.Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source.

For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.

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APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: Field, For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: Field,p. For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbersuse a paragraph number, for example: Field,para. More information on direct quotation of sources without pagination is given on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page.

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Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23 4 Thomas, H. University of Colorado, Boulder. Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known.

Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author. For sources with no date use n. Asmelash, L. Social media use may harm teens' mental health by disrupting positive activities, study says. More than million people worldwide are affected by depression World Health Organization, World Health Organization.

Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma American Psychological Association [APA], n. American Psychological Association. Recovering emotionally from disaste r. In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.